OSASCOMP ― 英語の形容詞の順序

この記事は英語と日本語で読めるものです。最初は英語で、その下が日本語翻訳。

英語能力に応じて、読む順番をご自由にお決めください。


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OSASCOMP, the order of adjectives in English

 

Read the following phrases. Do some of them sound strange to you?

1.     The beautiful blue skirt

2.     The blue beautiful skirt

3.     A tall young British man

4.     A British young tall man

5.     An uncomfortable black wooden chair

6.     A black wooden uncomfortable chair

 

The answer: phrases no. 2, 4 and 6 are wrong! They do not follow the “OSASCOMP” rule. But not to panic: explanations below!

 

OSASCOMP: how to place adjectives in the correct order in English

The rule goes as follows and applies to nouns used as modifiers as well (for example, the noun “leather” in “leather shoes” is used like an adjective to modify the noun “shoes”):

1.     Opinion: amazing, terrible, unjustifiable

2.     Size: large, tall, small

3.     Age: old, 20-year-old, new

4.     Shape: round, rectangular, flat

5.     Color: blue, white, read

6.     Origin: American, Japanese

7.     Material: wooden, leather, silk

8.     Purpose: swimming (pool), writing (desk)

 

As always with grammar however, there are areas where this order is disputed and an exception to the rule might sound better to a native speaker… Nonetheless, when in doubt about how to order adjectives, you can always safely refer to OSASCOMP!

 

Where to put commas between adjectives?

Here, the general rule is that you must use a comma to separate two adjectives of the same type. For example, if we use two adjectives of opinion before the noun “boy,” we’ll write, “James is a loud, annoying boy.”

 

 

Let’s practice!

 Can you place the following adjectives in the right order before each noun? Answers below.

1.     My chair (black, leather, old)

2.     The woman (Australian, elegant, thin)

3.     A pool (pear-shaped, swimming, wonderful)

4.     The man (courteous, handsome)

 

 

Answers:

 

1.     My old black leather chair

2.     The elegant thin Australian woman

3.     A wonderful pear-shaped swimming pool

4.     The courteous, handsome man OR The handsome, courteous man

As we always say, the best way to get an intuitive feel for the right order of adjectives is to read! Why not gain lots of experience with English grammar while reading about the most interesting business theories in our Book Club class?


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OSASCOMP ― 英語の形容詞の順序

 

次のフレーズを読んでみてください。ちょっと違和感がある、変な感じに聞こえるものはありますか?

 

1.    The beautiful blue skirt

2.    The blue beautiful skirt

3.    A tall young British man

4.    A British young tall man

5.    An uncomfortable black wooden chair

6.    A black wooden uncomfortable chair

 

答え:2. 4. 6.は誤りです!この3つは“OSASCOMP”ルールに沿っていません。でも心配ご無用、これからご説明いたしましょう!

 

OSASCOMP: 英語の形容詞の順序付け

ルールは以下のとおり。なお、形容詞的用法の名詞にも適用されます(例:“leather shoes”という言葉のうち、名詞“leather(革)”はもう一つの名詞“shoes”を修飾する形容詞のような働きをします)。

 

1.    Opinion(私見): amazing, terrible, unjustifiable

2.    Size(大きさ): large, tall, small

3.    Age(年齢、老若): old, 20-year-old, new

4.    Shape(形状): round, rectangular, flat

5.    Color(色): blue, white, read

6.    Origin(起源、生まれ): American, Japanese

7.    Material(材質): wooden, leather, silk

8.    Purpose(用途): swimming (pool), writing (desk)

 

文法にはつきものですが、やはりこの順序付けが議論されることもしばしばあり、時にはルールに沿わない例外のほうがネイティブスピーカーには案外しっくりするかもしれません。とはいえ、形容詞の順番で迷ったら、とりあえずOSASCOMPを参考にすれば間違いありません。

 

形容詞と形容詞の間でどこにコンマを置くか?

原則は、同じタイプの形容詞2つを分けるのにコンマを打ちます。たとえば、名詞“boy”の前に意見や評価(opinion)の類の形容詞を2つ使うのであれば、“James is a loud, annoying boy.”というように書きます。

 

 

では練習です!

( ) の中の形容詞を、それぞれ名詞の前に正しい順番で並べてみましょう。答えは下にあります。

 

1.    My chair (black, leather, old)

2.    The woman (Australian, elegant, thin)

3.    A pool (pear-shaped, swimming, wonderful)

4.    The man (courteous, handsome)

 

  

答え:

 

1.    My old black leather chair

2.    The elegant thin Australian woman

3.    A wonderful pear-shaped swimming pool

4.    The courteous, handsome man またはThe handsome, courteous man

英文法の感覚をつかむ最善の方法は、やはり読書!当校のBook ClubあるいはWorld Newsのセッションに参加してみませんか?